Difference between revisions of "Linux Distribution 64-bit v 32-bit"

From Info Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m
(For General Users: added reference to UEFI in 64 bit computers)
 
(3 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 4: Line 4:
 
*it supports an overwhelming majority of hardware
 
*it supports an overwhelming majority of hardware
 
*usually includes the NX feature, that is likely to provide additional protection against malware
 
*usually includes the NX feature, that is likely to provide additional protection against malware
  +
*many distributions no longer provide 32-bit versions
   
 
Note that Linux Distributions may variously refer to 64-bit Linux as "x86_64" or "AMD64". The two are equivalent and the latter works on computers that are trade-marked "Intel Inside" as well as AMD-based computers.
 
Note that Linux Distributions may variously refer to 64-bit Linux as "x86_64" or "AMD64". The two are equivalent and the latter works on computers that are trade-marked "Intel Inside" as well as AMD-based computers.
  +
  +
Computers that came with/were designed for Windows 8 or 10 have UEFI firmware and almost invariably 64 bit CPU. Installing 32-bit Linux on these can be problematic.
  +
  +
The exception is for computers having < 2 GB RAM. There a 32-bit distribution should be selected, whether or not the CPU supports 64-bit, but note that this is likely to cause problems in dual-boot arrangements. PC down to 1.2 GB, perhaps 1 GB should run 32-bit desktop oriented distributions adequately. Specialised mini-distributions can work well in 512 MB or less.
   
 
=== Test for CPU Model ===
 
=== Test for CPU Model ===
 
==== 64-bit CPU ====
 
==== 64-bit CPU ====
 
A simple and reliable way to check whether a CPU supports 64-bit code is to boot a 64-bit distribution
 
A simple and reliable way to check whether a CPU supports 64-bit code is to boot a 64-bit distribution
*Parted Magic is a suitable distribution for this purpose, because a 64-bit only ISO is available and it is only ~ 200 MB.
+
*Parted Magic is a suitable distribution for this purpose, because a 64-bit it is only ~ 400 MB download and a 64-bit boot can be selected.
 
*alternatively, any 64-bit Distribution media could be used, if already to hand.
 
*alternatively, any 64-bit Distribution media could be used, if already to hand.
*a 64-bit kernel will quickly present an error message along the lines of "unsupported CPU/architecture" if a 64-bit capable CPU is not detected
+
**a 64-bit kernel will quickly present an error message along the lines of "unsupported CPU/architecture" if a 64-bit capable CPU is not detected
   
 
==== 32-bit CPU ====
 
==== 32-bit CPU ====
Line 25: Line 30:
 
**these are likely to work incompletely on Desktops as well as other laptops
 
**these are likely to work incompletely on Desktops as well as other laptops
 
**the purpose of the Distribution would be clearly identified by the provider
 
**the purpose of the Distribution would be clearly identified by the provider
  +
  +
  +
=== Resource Requirements ===
  +
In the absence of any guidelines from the distributor
  +
  +
==== CPU ====
  +
*any 64-bit CPUI
  +
**slower, single core models will perform more slowly
  +
*32-bit CPU slower than 1 GHz are generally suited only to specialised "older PC" Desktop oriented distributions
  +
==== RAM ====
  +
Varies substantially with the style of Distribution
  +
*2 GB RAM is adequate for any 64-bit Desktop distribution
  +
*1.2 GB RAM adequate for 32-bit Desktop distribution
  +
*512 MB RAM may be adequate for specialised server/NAS/router distributions
  +
**all above assumes installation from DVD/USB stick Installation media
  +
**more RAM is required to install from a booted Live distribution
  +
==== Disk Space ====
  +
*HDD smaller than 80 GB SATA are likely to be too slow for acceptable performance
   
 
--[[User:Rpeters|Rod]] ([[User talk:Rpeters|talk]]) 17:19, 15 January 2015 (AEDT)
 
--[[User:Rpeters|Rod]] ([[User talk:Rpeters|talk]]) 17:19, 15 January 2015 (AEDT)

Latest revision as of 07:35, 18 November 2016

For General Users

64-bit Linux is generally recommended for computers that support it - see below for simple tests

  • it has been in general use for over a decade and is now quite mature
  • it supports an overwhelming majority of hardware
  • usually includes the NX feature, that is likely to provide additional protection against malware
  • many distributions no longer provide 32-bit versions

Note that Linux Distributions may variously refer to 64-bit Linux as "x86_64" or "AMD64". The two are equivalent and the latter works on computers that are trade-marked "Intel Inside" as well as AMD-based computers.

Computers that came with/were designed for Windows 8 or 10 have UEFI firmware and almost invariably 64 bit CPU. Installing 32-bit Linux on these can be problematic.

The exception is for computers having < 2 GB RAM. There a 32-bit distribution should be selected, whether or not the CPU supports 64-bit, but note that this is likely to cause problems in dual-boot arrangements. PC down to 1.2 GB, perhaps 1 GB should run 32-bit desktop oriented distributions adequately. Specialised mini-distributions can work well in 512 MB or less.

Test for CPU Model

64-bit CPU

A simple and reliable way to check whether a CPU supports 64-bit code is to boot a 64-bit distribution

  • Parted Magic is a suitable distribution for this purpose, because a 64-bit it is only ~ 400 MB download and a 64-bit boot can be selected.
  • alternatively, any 64-bit Distribution media could be used, if already to hand.
    • a 64-bit kernel will quickly present an error message along the lines of "unsupported CPU/architecture" if a 64-bit capable CPU is not detected

32-bit CPU

If the above test indicates that 64-bit Linux is not supported then most 32-bit Linux should be suitable.

  • the latter might variously be labelled "x86", "i586", "i686" or frequently no differentiator at all

Exceptions where a 32-bit Distribution is unsuitable include:

  • a small minority are compiled for CPU later than "i686" (Pentium II or equivalent)
    • these would begin to boot on earlier CPU, but quickly halt and display an error message
    • beginners are faced with using a different Distribution (or obtaining a later computer)
  • some Distributions are collated for specific hardware platforms eg eeePC netbooks
    • these are likely to work incompletely on Desktops as well as other laptops
    • the purpose of the Distribution would be clearly identified by the provider


Resource Requirements

In the absence of any guidelines from the distributor

CPU

  • any 64-bit CPUI
    • slower, single core models will perform more slowly
  • 32-bit CPU slower than 1 GHz are generally suited only to specialised "older PC" Desktop oriented distributions

RAM

Varies substantially with the style of Distribution

  • 2 GB RAM is adequate for any 64-bit Desktop distribution
  • 1.2 GB RAM adequate for 32-bit Desktop distribution
  • 512 MB RAM may be adequate for specialised server/NAS/router distributions
    • all above assumes installation from DVD/USB stick Installation media
    • more RAM is required to install from a booted Live distribution

Disk Space

  • HDD smaller than 80 GB SATA are likely to be too slow for acceptable performance

--Rod (talk) 17:19, 15 January 2015 (AEDT) --